Tuesday, August 27, 2013

Very interesting study on immunological sensitized observations with Cr and Co

2013 Aug 8. pii: S0142-9612(13)00887-9. doi: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2013.07.073. [Epub ahead of print]

Consequences of exposure to peri-articular injections of micro- and nano-particulate cobalt-chromium alloy.

Source

Institute of Medical & Biological Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.

Abstract

Metal hip replacements generate both metal particles and ions. The biological effects of peri-articular exposure to nanometre and micron sized cobalt chrome (CoCr) wear particles were investigated in a mouse model. Mice received injections of two clinically relevant doses of nanoparticles (32 nm), one of micron sized (2.9 μm) CoCr particles or vehicle alone into the right knee joint at 0, 6, 12 and 18 weeks. Mice were analysed for genotoxic and immunological effects 1, 4 and 40 weeks post exposure. Nanoparticles but not micron particles progressively corroded at the injection site. Micron sized particles were physically removed. No increase of Co or Cr was seen in peripheral blood between 1 and 40 weeks post exposure to particles. No significant inflammatory changes were observed in the knee tissues including ALVAL or necrosis. DNA damage was increased in bone marrow at one and forty weeks and in cells isolated from frontal cortex at 40 weeks after injection with nanoparticles. Mice exposed to the micron sized, but not nanoparticles became immunologically sensitized to Cr(III), Cr (VI) and Ni(II) over the 40 week period as determined by lymphocyte transformation and ELISpot (IFN-γ and IL-2) assays. The data indicated that the response to the micron sized particles was Th1 driven, indicative of type IV hypersensitivity. This study adds to understanding of the potential adverse biological reactions to metal wear products.
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Microparticles are particles between 0.1 and 100 \mum in size. Commercially available microparticles are available in a wide variety of materials, including ceramics, glass, polymers, and metals. Microparticles encountered in daily life include pollen, sand, dust, flour, and powdered sugar.

In nanotechnology, a particle is defined as a small object that behaves as a whole unit with respect to its transport and properties. Particles are further classified according to diameter.[1] Coarse particles cover a range between 10,000 and 2,500 nanometers. Fine particles are sized between 2,500 and 100 nanometers. Ultrafine particles, or nanoparticles are sized between 1 and 100 nanometers.

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