Thursday, June 27, 2013

Metal-on-Metal Hip Prostheses and Systemic Health: A Cross-Sectional Association Study 8 Years after Implantation



Abstract

There is public concern over the long term systemic health effects of metal released from hip replacement prostheses that use large-diameter metal-on-metal bearings. However, to date there has been no systematic study to determine which organs may be at risk, or the magnitude of any effect. We undertook a detailed cross-sectional health screen at a mean of 8 years after surgery in 35 asymptomatic patients who had previously received a metal-on-metal hip resurfacing (MoMHR) versus 35 individually age and sex matched asymptomatic patients who had received a conventional hip replacement. Total body bone mineral density was 5% higher (mean difference 0.05 g/cm2, P = 0.02) and bone turnover was 14% lower (TRAP 5b, mean difference −0.56IU/L, P = 0.006; osteocalcin, mean difference −3.08 ng/mL, P = 0.03) in the hip resurfacing versus conventional hip replacement group. Cardiac ejection fraction was 7% lower (mean absolute difference −5%, P = 0.04) and left ventricular end-diastolic diameter was 6% larger (mean difference 2.7 mm, P = 0.007) in the hip resurfacing group versus those patients who received a conventional hip replacement. The urinary fractional excretion of metal was low (cobalt 5%, chromium 1.5%) in patients with MoMHR, but creatinine clearance was normal. Diuretic prescription was associated with a 40% increase in the fractional excretion of chromium (mean difference 0.5%, P = 0.03). There was no evidence of difference in neuropsychological, renal tubular, hepatic or endocrine function between groups (P>0.05). Our findings of differences in bone and cardiac function between patient groups suggest that chronic exposure to low elevated metal concentrations in patients with well-functioning MoMHR prostheses may have systemic effects. Long-term epidemiological studies in patients with well-functioning metal on metal hip prostheses should include musculoskeletal and cardiac endpoints to quantitate the risk of clinical disease.
 
 
  • Jennifer R. Prentice,
    Affiliation: Department of Human Metabolism, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom
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  • Matthew J. Clark,
    Affiliation: Department of Human Metabolism, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom
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  • Nigel Hoggard,
    Affiliation: Department of Human Metabolism, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom
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  • Allison C. Morton,
    Affiliation: Department of Cardiology, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Sheffield, United Kingdom
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  • Claire Tooth,
    Affiliation: Department of Neurology, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Sheffield, United Kingdom
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  • Martyn N. Paley,
    Affiliation: Department of Human Metabolism, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom
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  • Ian Stockley,
    Affiliation: Department of Orthopaedics, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Sheffield, United Kingdom
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  • Marios Hadjivassiliou,
    Affiliation: Department of Neurology, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Sheffield, United Kingdom
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  • J. Mark Wilkinson
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