The prior post can be found here: http://www.mydepuyhiprecall.com/2012/09/more-on-nanoparticles-causing-dna.html
We are examining 4 journal articles which are listed in the first post above.
Its good to cover definitions first as it's hard to understand this stuff if the terminology is not defined. Please refer to these definitions when you have questions about the subjects being discussed. ( It is easier for me to understand things if I can relate science to some kind of real life event which is what I am going to attempt to do here to try and explain this stuff. Otherwise, it will go way over my head and yours likely..)
Systemic effects are long term effects of MoM exposure through implants. Systemic refers to something that is spread throughout, system-wide, affecting a system or many systems of the body.
In Vitro studies : In vitro (Latin: in glass) studies in experimental biology are those that are conducted using components of an organism that have been isolated from their usual biological surroundings in order to permit a more detailed or more convenient analysis than can be done with whole organisms. Colloquially, these experiments are commonly called "test tube experiments". In contrast, in vivo work is that which is conducted with living organisms in their normal, intact state, while ex vivo studies are conducted on functional organs that have been removed from the intact organism.
Nanoparticle in nanotechnology, a particle is defined as a small object...really small.
in terms of diameter, coarse particles cover a range between 10,000 and 2,500 nanometers. Fine particles are sized between 2,500 and 100 nanometers. Ultrafine particles, or nanoparticles are sized between 100 and 1 nanometers.. A nanometer is 1 billionth of a meter....gives the word 'small' a new meaning!
Micron Particles are one millionth of a meter so micron particles are bigger than nano particles which are one billions of a meter.
Nanotoxicology is a new word for me. Nanotoxicology is a branch of bionanoscience which deals with the study and application of toxicity of nanomaterials. Nanotoxicological studies are intended to determine whether and to what extent these properties may pose a threat to to human beings.
The system which is affected in the body and the two components of that system which play a major role:
Immune system: The immune system is a system of biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease. To function properly, an immune system must detect a wide variety of agents[like metals], from viruses to parasitic worms, and distinguish them from the organism's own healthy tissue. Disorders of the immune system can result in autoimmune diseases, inflammatory diseases and cancer. It is the latter that we are ultimately concerned about.
Macrophages and Lymphocytes
These are the two key types of Leukocytes (white blood cells that fight invaders in your body) which you will see discussed in the papers.
Welcome to the Immune System party!!
What happens when the big party starts and an uninvited guest (metal particles) crashes the party? ( If you don't figure out what happens during the party, you can't address the outcome of the party....DNA changes and possibly cancer.)
If you think about any party you have participated in where no one knows what to do exactly when this invader or uninvited gust enters... that is kind of the what happens when and invader enters the body. This big fight ensues trying to get the guy (metals) kicked out and in the process of doing that, grave consequences can ensue which cause damage and sometimes the damage left behind is irreparable.
So these 4 journal articles are addressing what exactly happens (through studies from 2007 to current, at the immune party) and what kind of damage is thought to have been left behind at the immune party once the bouncers finish with the uninvited guest-metal particles.
The brouhaha enters like hurricane Katrina and leaves a lot of destruction in its path.
- Macrophages and Lymphocytes (the party bouncers). So at the gate of the party there are bouncers who try and keep the unwanted guests (metals) out. There are many types of bouncers in the body so lets just talk about a few of them. In order to hire a bouncer, the party planner goes to Leukocyte Inc and examines the types of bouncers they want. The party planners settle on looking at two of them; the macrophages who are guys with really long arms and they simply wrap their arms around the party invader engulf them and simply....take them out. The second type of bouncer they choose, the lymphocyte, has a bit more complex way of taking out the party invader out. They sound alarms and those alarms (chemicals of sorts) send out a cascade of messages to a lot of other agents in the area to summon support. These guys kind of form a physical and chemical barrier to the invader (metals.) They set off a long chain of events.
Next in the series (3 of x) I will discuss the the key systemic processes in these journal articles:
Free Radicals and
All of these terms and concepts are really critical to understanding what happens with the hip particles when they are released into the body. Now don't fall asleep yet! This stuff is really interesting and not too difficult to understand. After all, you wanna know how the bouncers get rid of the invader right?
I think by the time we get to part 4, we can then look at the 4 journal articles. Apologies if this is too low level but myself not being a scientist, I have to bring it down to this level so that I understand it.
BTW/I reserve the right to come back to these definitions and modify them as we go along to clarify new ideas that might require further explanation!