Thursday, September 13, 2012

More on Nanoparticles causing DNA damage from MOM hips with Oxidatve stress (3 of x in a series)

Next in the series (3 of x) I will discuss the the key systemic processes in these journal articles:

Redox chemistry,
Free Radicals and
ROS (Reactive oxygen species)
Oxidative stress

Prior posts in the sequence
 1 of x
More on Nanoparticles causing DNA damage from MOM hips with oxidative stress ( 1 of x in a series)
 2 of x

3 of x

A  brief on cancer

1. Do only cancer patients have cancer cells?

2.  Everyone has cancers cells but the cancer never becomes "noticeable" because our immune system  protects us against those cells spreading.  The gate keepers or bouncers as I characterized them in the last article, keeps them at bay.

3.  We make the erroneous assumption that no detectable cancer means no cancer.  1 million cancer cells are undetectable by even the most sensitive medical equipment.  1 billion cancer cells become a tiny and nearly undetectable lump.

4.  The average  adult has one cancer cell appearing every day, yet our immune system is able to keep these cells at bay.

5.  A healthy adult body includes around 60 trillion cells of which nearly a third or 20 trillion cells are immune factors.

6.  Your 60 trillion cells possess a thread of material that holds all of the blue print information of you.  Bruce Ames and his colleagues at Cal Berkley have shown that each cell in the human body takes an average of 1000 to 10,000 hits or DNA breaks per day.  Imagine sitting on your roof in the middle of a hurricane while shingles are constantly being ripped off and you have to continuously repair the damage.  Make a mistake and cancer could be the consequence.

7.  The average adult gets 6 bouts of cancer in a lifetime yet only a percentage results in  a full blown cancer that requires treatment

8.  The concepts below are all things that can effect the normal functioning of the Immune system and your DNA.  We will see these concepts discussed in the 4 seminal journal articles which we will review in this series.

Free Radicals

Linus Pauling, PhD earned one of his Nobel prizes in chemistry in the 1950s by discovering how atoms bond together to become molecules. Picture the sun with Earth, Saturn and Mars among other planets orbiting around the sun. Atoms and molecules are a tiny rendition of our solar system. Electrons orbit the nucleus of an atom just like planets orbit around the sun in our solar system. Atoms bound together, such as hydrogen with oxygen to yield water by SHARING ELECTRONS as if two suns came together and share planets or moons to keep in balance and to be complete. Now, IMAGINE IF A PLANET WAS MISSING FROM THE SOLAR SYSTEM. There is an imbalance in forces that makes this solar system unstable.

Free radicals (or pro oxidants) are like unstable solar systems because they lack a planet in their outer orbit. Free radicals will grab a planet from a nearby solar system to make that solar system now unstable. And on it goes in domino fashion, disrupting solar systems (atoms and molecules) until tissue damage and cancer (or other disease states) set in.

 Cancer cells are primarily anaerobic (meaning without oxygen.)  When you cause changes in oxygen availablity to cancer cells, it spells trouble in the ok coral!  Lets see what kind of trouble.

Hang in there.  This is quite interesting stuff!  The concepts below just simply state that if the state of oxygen changes with respect to affecting the cancer cells, all hell breaks loose.


Redox (reduction-oxidation) reactions include all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation state changed.

This can be either a simple redox process, such as the oxidation of carbon to yield carbon dioxide (CO2) or the reduction of carbon by hydrogen to yield methane (CH4), or a complex process such as the oxidation of glucose (C6H12O6) in the human body through a series of complex electron transfer processes.

Fundamentally, redox reactions are a family of reactions that are concerned with the transfer of electrons between species. The term comes from the two concepts of reduction and oxidation.[1] It can be explained in simple terms:
  • Oxidation is the loss of electrons or an increase in oxidation state by a molecule, atom, or ion.
  • Reduction is the gain of electrons or a decrease in oxidation state by a molecule, atom, or ion.
Although oxidation reactions are commonly associated with the formation of oxides from oxygen molecules, these are only specific examples of a more general concept of reactions involving electron transfer.

The journal articles we will address once we deal with these definitions will tell us what happens when you have these hip surgeries.

Reactive oxygen species (ROS)

ROS are chemically reactive molecules containing oxygen. Examples include oxygen ions and peroxides. Reactive oxygen species are highly reactive due to the presence of unpaired valence shell electrons. ROS form as a natural byproduct of the normal metabolism of oxygen and have important roles in cell signaling and homeostasis.[1] However, during times of environmental stress (e.g., UV or heat exposure////////[or a hip revision or replacement]), ROS levels can increase dramatically.[1] This may result in significant damage to cell structures. Cumulatively, this is known as oxidative stress.

In general, harmful effects of reactive oxygen species on the cell are most often:[4]
  1. damage of DNA
  2. oxidations of polyunsaturated fatty acids in lipids (lipid peroxidation)
  3. oxidations of amino acids in proteins
  4. oxidatively inactivate specific enzymes by oxidation of co-factors
Oxidative stress

Oxidative stress is an imbalance between the systemic manifestation of reactive oxygen species and a biological system's ability to readily detoxify the reactive intermediates or to repair the resulting damage. Disturbances in the normal redox state of cells can cause toxic effects through the production of peroxides and free radicals that damage all components of the cell, including proteins, lipids, and DNA. Further, some reactive oxidative species act as cellular messengers in redox signaling. Thus, oxidative stress can cause disruptions in normal mechanisms of cellular signaling.
In humans, oxidative stress is thought to be involved in the development of many diseases or may exacerbate their symptoms. These include cancer and other disease states.

Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS)  is a particularly destructive aspect of oxidative* stress. Such species include free radicals and peroxides. Some of the less reactive of these species (such as superoxide) can be converted by oxidoreduction reactions with transition metals or other redox cycling compounds (including quinones) into more aggressive radical species that can cause extensive cellular damage.[14] The major portion of long term effects is inflicted by damage on DNA.[15] Most of these oxygen-derived species are produced at a low level by normal aerobic metabolism. Normal cellular defense mechanisms destroy most of these. Likewise, any damage to cells is constantly repaired. However, under the severe levels of oxidative stress that cause necrosis, the damage causes ATP depletion, preventing controlled apoptotic death and causing the cell to simply fall apart


[So the next post on this will  look at what happens when you undertake a hip revision or hip surgery.  Hey all of you chemists out there,  please feel free to correct anything or contribute to posit an alternate explanation.  Also, you might want to look at the forthcoming transitional metals post as that topic is a bit difficult to explain. 

I have used many sources to deal with this issue and have not referenced all of them here but I like the ease with which  Patrick Quillin (PdD) presents concepts and have used some of them above.  he clearly has a way with words!  Thank you Patrick for helping me see these concepts more clearly in your books!

It takes awhile to assemble this information so when I complete that process for each blog post in this series, I will publish them.  Might be few days between posts on this subject.  Apologies.]


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