Hexavalent chromium-induced DNA damage and repair mechanisms.
SourceWise Laboratory of Environmental and Genetic Toxicology, Maine Center for Toxicology and Environmental Health, University of Southern Maine, Portland, Maine 04104-9300, USA.
AbstractHexavalent chromium is a commonly used industrial metal that has been shown to induce lung cancer in workers having long term exposure. In the particulate form, Cr(VI) dissolves slowly in vivo, leading to an extended exposure of lung cells. Hexavalent chromium is taken into the cell and rapidly reduced to Cr(V), Cr(IV), Cr(III), and reactive oxygen species. Cells treated with Cr(VI) are subject to several types of DNA damage resulting from this reduction, including base modification, single-strand breaks, double-strand breaks, Cr-DNA adducts, DNA-Cr-DNA adducts, and protein-Cr-DNA adducts. These types of damage, if left unrepaired or are misrepaired, can lead to growth arrest, cytotoxicity, and apoptosis, as well as mutations leading to neoplastic transformation and ultimately tumorigenesis. Here we review the current literature on Cr-induced DNA damage and its repair.
[connie needs to reivew this bibliography.]