1. leaching of metals from the hip implants may have adverse effects on the immune system.
2. The immune system protects the body from infection. An immune system is a system of biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease by identifying and killing pathogens and tumor cells
3. Certain exposure levels to this metal provides significantly decreased cell viability and increased apoptosis in both resting and activated lymphocytes.
4. Apoptosis ( //) is the process of programmed cell death (PCD) that may occur in multicellular organisms. Biochemical events lead to characteristic cell changes (morphology) and death.
5. Excessive apoptosis causes atrophy, whereas an insufficient amount results in uncontrolled cell proliferation, such as cancer.