- Wolf et al 1989 (done in prior post)
- Landon et al 2004
- Bacon et al 1983
- Martnett et al 1999
- Hartwig et al 2003
Background to the Martnett journal article below
Metal-induced intracellular effects:
- Chromium 6 is oxidized to Cr 3
- Reactions with metal ions can lead to generation of free radicals which can cause cellular dysfunction.
- Free radicals catalyze the oxidation of protein and phosoholipids ( a process known as lipid peroxidation.) Lipid peroxidation leads to the formation of malondialdehyde which can react with DNA base.
- Permanent modification of the genetic material resulting from this "oxidative damage" represents the first step in mutagenesis, carcinogenesis and ageing.