Mabilleau G, Kwon YM, Pandit H, Murray DW, Sabokbar A.
first interesting point from this paper:
Unlike most organic chemicals, metal can not be eliminated from the tissues by metabolic degradation. [ I never knew before reading this why the kidney and liver were the key organs that might be affected] Thus, they can only me eliminated from tissues by renal or gastronintestinal excretion. There is evidence from a recent animal study to suggest that Chromium ions can accumulate in the liver. Others have investigated potential long-term effects on the the kidney function resulting from Co and Cr wear in metal-on metal total hip replacements by measuring the serum metal ion levels and creatinine clearance at 10- year follow -up in 75 patients conducted in 2007.
In this study, the serum creatinine clearance was normal indicating the kidney functioning is normal.
[comments by connie. Just recently there was a much larger study conducted at Stanford and was published this year: