Friday, March 11, 2011

Mechanisms of chromium toxicity, carcinogenicity and allergenicity: review of the literature from 1985 to 2000. (7 of 8 Chromium toxicity)


Hum Exp Toxicol. 2001 Sep;20(9):439-51.
IRG in Toxicology, King's College London, UK.

Abstract

Laboratory and clinical reports about the pathogenesis of the carcinogenicity and allergenicity of chromium compounds published between 1985 and 2000 have been reviewed as a basis for consideration of the pathogenetic mechanisms involved. There is good evidence from the clinic and the laboratory that Cr[VI] is the ion responsible for most of the toxic actions, although much of the underlying molecular damage may be due to its intracellular reduction to the even more highly reactive and short-lived chemical species Cr[III] and Cr[V]. Exposure to Cr[VI] can result in various point mutations in DNA and to chromosomal damage, as well as to oxidative changes in proteins and to adduct formation. The relative importance of these effects of chromium ions and of the free oxidising radicals they may generate in the body in causing tumours and allergic sensitisation remain to be demonstrated. Biochemical studies of the DNA-damaging effects and of the pathogenesis of the allergic reactions to chromium ions have not kept up with advances in understanding of the molecular basis of the effects of other carcinogens and allergens.

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