Thursday, February 24, 2011
Implications of Ion Toxicity on the kidneys (Questions that must be answered.)
Those of you follow this blog know I have been wrestling with the questions surrounding the potential harmful effects the ion toxicity levels may have on kidneys since I have only one remaining. Tomorrow, I have an appointment with a nephrologist (kidney specialist) to shed some light on these questions. I thought I might share them with you.
Questions for my consults (in no particular order):
1) What is the cancer risk in the kidney given the statistically significant results found in the Sweden study?
2) What is the risk of a trivalent chromium being a carcinogen with the primary target being the kidney?
3) Kidney epithelial cells are 10x more sensitive towards Cr 6 than the same liver cells. Humm hepatoxic issues as well ?
4) Can non toxic Cr3 be oxidized to Cr 6 under certain conditions and what are they? (very important question/studies indicate yes.)
5) What is the toxic range for Cr and Co in the kidney?
6) What are the signs for this?
7) What are the tests for measuring the accumulation of these metals in the kidneys?
8) What is my risk given I have only one left?
9) What is the risk differentiator with metal implants vs inhaled or oral exposure? Studies seem to be focused on the latter not the former?
10) What are the genotoxic effects for a trivalent Cr to the kidney?
11) What oxidation is this metal exposed to in the body once it is in there?
12) What solubility issues should be considered?
13) Once absorbed, Cr 6 IS QUICKLY REDUCED TO THE TIRVALENT FORM WHICH ACCOUNTS FOR ALL OF THIE ELEMENT PRESENT IN THE BLOOD STREAM OR TAKEN UP BY THE TISSUE? What?? Then how is CR 6 responsible for cancer and other things if it is non toxic?
14) How is this absorbed by the kidney?
15) Two main features of kidney damage re metals: (Is this correct overall?)
a. Lack of dose-effect/response relationships or progression toward more severe impairment when the exposure intensity increases
b. The recent absorption rate more than the cumulated does is responsible for the observed nephrotoxic effects.
16) What is renal oligio anuric deficiency? How is it caused?
17) There is good evidence that Cr 6 is the ion responsible for MOST of the toxic actions although much of the underlying molecular damage may be due to the intracellular reduction to the even more highly reactive and short-lived Cr3 and Cr6. ??
18) What about Cobalt? “Patients with impaired renal function may experience Co poisoning without the presence of pain despite a well positioned implant because the cobalt released by normal implant wear is not adequately cleared by their kidneys? (2010/Alaska epidemiology)
19) In short term tests, the hexavalent Cr demonstrated genotoxic effects 4 times more frequently than did the trivalent Cr compounds. Well this is not comforting. This tells me that there are geneotoxic effects with trivalent as well. So what are they?
Posted by Connie at 3:16 PM